Development of Frontal EEG Differences Between Eyes-Closed and Eyes-Open Resting Conditions in Children: Data From a Single-Channel Dry-Sensor Portable Device
Johnstone, S J
Rogers, J M
Valderrrama, Joaquin T
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Changes in EEG when moving from an eyes-closed to an eyes-open resting condition result from bottom-up sensory processing and have been referred to as activation. In children, activation is characterised by a global reduction in alpha, frontally-present reductions for delta and theta, and a frontal increase for beta. The present study aimed firstly to replicate frontal EEG activation effects using single-channel, dry-sensor EEG, and secondly to extend current understanding by examining developmental change in children. Frontal EEG was recorded using a single-channel, dry-sensor EEG device while 182 children aged 7-12 years completed eyes-closed resting (EC), eyes-open resting (EO), and focus (FO) EEG tasks. Results indicated that frontal delta, theta, and alpha power were reduced, and frontal beta power was increased, in the EO compared to the EC condition. Exploratory analysis of a form of top-down activation showed that frontal beta power was increased in FO compared to EO, with no differences for other bands. These activation effects were robust at the individual level. The bottom-up activation effects reduced with age for frontal delta and theta, increased for frontal alpha, with no developmental change for top-down or bottom-up frontal beta activation. These findings contribute further to validation of the single-channel, dry-sensor, frontal EEG and provide support for use in a range of medical, therapeutic, and clinical domains.