Measuring communication effort in speech variability
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Interactive conversation is one of the most important activities that is affected by hearing impairment. • Measures of effort are important, in terms of both listening and communication, in understanding hearing disability. • The difficulty of communicating in a given situation may be reflected in talkers’ speech production. • Voicing jitter refers to short-term cycle-to-cycle variability in fundamental frequency (Lieberman, 1961). • Voicing jitter is affected by many factors, including vocal fold stiffness, sub-glottal pressure and rate of airflow (Titze, 2000).